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  • Skrivet av: JamesSpoow - 2018-01-19 kl 17:51 | Web

    A boiler is a closed vessel in which drinking water or other liquid is heated. The liquid does not always boil. (In THE UNITED STATES, the word "furnace" is normally used if the purpose is never to boil the fluid.) The heated or vaporized liquid exits the boiler for use in various heating system or processes applications,[1 - [2 - including drinking water heating, central heating system, boiler-based power era, cooking food, and sanitation.

    The pressure vessel of the boiler is usually made of steel (or alloy steel), or historically of wrought iron. Stainless steel, especially of the austenitic types, is not found in wetted elements of boilers credited to corrosion and stress corrosion breaking.[3 - However, ferritic stainless steel is often used in superheater sections that won't be exposed to boiling water, and electrically heated stainless shell boilers are allowed under the European "Pressure Equipment Directive" for production of steam for sterilizers and disinfectors.[4 - -
    In live steam models, copper or brass is often used since it is easier fabricated in smaller size boilers. Historically, copper was often used for fireboxes (particularly for steam locomotives), because of its better formability and higher thermal conductivity; however, in more recent times, the high price of copper often makes this an uneconomic choice and cheaper substitutes (such as steel) are used instead.

    For a lot of the Victorian "age group of vapor", the only materials used for boilermaking was the highest grade of wrought iron, with assembly by rivetting. This iron was often from specialist ironworks, such as at Cleator Moor (UK), observed for the high quality of their rolled plate and its own suitability for high-reliability use in critical applications, such as high-pressure boilers. In the 20th century, design practice instead moved towards the utilization of steel, which is stronger and cheaper, with welded building, which is quicker and requires less labour. It should be mentioned, however, that wrought iron boilers corrode significantly slower than their modern-day steel counterparts, and are less susceptible to localized pitting and stress-corrosion. This makes the longevity of older wrought-iron boilers much more advanced than those of welded steel boilers.

    Cast iron might be used for the heating vessel of domestic drinking water heaters. Although such heaters are usually termed "boilers" in a few countries, their purpose is to produce warm water usually, not steam, and they also run at low pressure and stay away from boiling. The brittleness of cast iron makes it impractical for high-pressure steam boilers.
    Boiler Repairs Catford, SE6, Boiler Breakdown Emergency Service - More info>>>
    The foundation of heat for a boiler is combustion of some of several fuels, such as wood, coal, oil, or gas. Electric steam boilers use level of resistance- or immersion-type heating elements. Nuclear fission is utilized as a heat source for producing steam also, either directly (BWR) or, generally, in specialised warmth exchangers called "vapor generators" (PWR). Temperature recovery steam generators (HRSGs) use heat rejected from other procedures such as gas turbine.

    Boiler efficiency
    there are two solutions to measure the boiler efficiency 1) direct method 2) indirect method

    Direct method -immediate method of boiler efficiency test is more usable or even more common

    boiler efficiency =Q*((Hg-Hf)/q)*(GCV *100 ) Q =Total steam circulation Hg= Enthalpy of saturated vapor in k cal/kg Hf =Enthalpy of give food to drinking water in kcal/kg q= level of gasoline use in kg/hr GCV =gross calorific value in kcal/kg like family pet coke (8200 kcal/KG)

    indirect method -to gauge the boiler efficiency in indirect method, we are in need of a subsequent parameter like

    Ultimate analysis of fuel (H2,S2,S,C moisture constraint, ash constraint)
    percentage of O2 or CO2 at flue gas
    flue gas temperature at outlet
    ambient temperature in deg c and humidity of air in kg/kg
    GCV of energy in kcal/kg
    ash percentage in combustible fuel
    GCV of ash in kcal/kg
    Boilers can be classified in to the following configurations:

    Pot boiler or Haycock boiler/Haystack boiler: a primitive "kettle" in which a open fire heats a partially filled drinking water pot from below. 18th century Haycock boilers produced and stored large volumes of very low-pressure steam generally, often barely above that of the atmosphere. These could burn off wood or frequently, coal. Efficiency was very low.
    Flued boiler with a couple of large flues-an early forerunner or type of fire-tube boiler.

    Diagram of the fire-tube boiler
    Fire-tube boiler: Here, water partially fills a boiler barrel with a small volume remaining above to support the vapor (vapor space). This is the kind of boiler used in all steam locomotives nearly. The heat source is inside a furnace or firebox that needs to be held completely surrounded by water in order to keep the temp of the heating surface below the boiling point. The furnace can be situated at one end of the fire-tube which lengthens the path of the hot gases, thus augmenting the heating system surface which may be further increased by making the gases invert direction through a second parallel pipe or a lot of money of multiple pipes (two-pass or return flue boiler); on the other hand the gases may be studied along the edges and then beneath the boiler through flues (3-pass boiler). In case of a locomotive-type boiler, a boiler barrel extends from the firebox and the hot gases go through a lot of money of fire pipes inside the barrel which greatly escalates the heating system surface in comparison to a single tube and further increases heat transfer. Fire-tube boilers usually have a comparatively low rate of steam creation, but high steam storage capacity. Fire-tube boilers mainly burn off solid fuels, but are readily versatile to the people of the liquid or gas variety.

    Diagram of a water-tube boiler.
    Water-tube boiler: In this type, pipes filled up with water are arranged in the furnace in a genuine variety of possible configurations. The water tubes connect large drums Often, the low ones containing water and the top ones water and steam; in other cases, such as a mono-tube boiler, drinking water is circulated with a pump through a succession of coils. This kind generally provides high steam production rates, but less storage space capacity than the above. Water tube boilers can be designed to exploit any warmth source and tend to be preferred in high-pressure applications because the high-pressure water/vapor is included within small diameter pipes which can withstand the pressure with a thinner wall.
    Flash boiler: A flash boiler is a specialized kind of water-tube boiler in which tubes are close together and water is pumped through them. A flash boiler differs from the kind of mono-tube steam generator in which the pipe is permanently filled up with water. Super fast boiler, the pipe is kept so hot that water give food to is quickly flashed into vapor and superheated. Flash boilers acquired some use in automobiles in the 19th century which use continued into the early 20th century. .

    1950s design steam locomotive boiler, from a Victorian Railways J class
    Fire-tube boiler with Water-tube firebox. Sometimes the two above types have been mixed in the next manner: the firebox consists of an set up of water pipes, called thermic siphons. The gases then pass through a typical firetube boiler. Water-tube fireboxes were installed in many Hungarian locomotives,[citation needed - but have met with little success in other countries.
    Sectional boiler. Inside a ensemble iron sectional boiler, sometimes called a "pork chop boiler" the water is contained inside ensemble iron sections.[citation needed - These areas are assembled on site to produce the finished boiler.
    See also: Boiler explosion
    To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations like the American Society of Mechanical Designers (ASME) develop requirements and regulation codes. For instance, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a typical providing a wide range of guidelines and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with safety, security and design standards.[5 -

    Historically, boilers were a way to obtain many serious injuries and property destruction as a consequence to poorly understood engineering principles. Thin and brittle metallic shells can rupture, while welded or riveted seams could open up badly, resulting in a violent eruption of the pressurized vapor. When water is changed into vapor it expands to over 1,000 times its original volume and travels down steam pipes at over 100 kilometres each hour. Because of this, steam is a great way of moving energy and heat around a site from a central boiler house to where it is needed, but with no right boiler feed water treatment, a steam-raising flower will suffer from size formation and corrosion. At best, this increases energy costs and can lead to poor quality vapor, reduced efficiency, shorter plant life and unreliable procedure. At worst, it can lead to catastrophic failing and lack of life. Collapsed or dislodged boiler tubes can also squirt scalding-hot steam and smoke from the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who fill the coal in to the fireplace chamber. Extremely large boilers providing a huge selection of horsepower to operate factories can potentially demolish entire buildings.[6 -

    A boiler which has a loss of give food to drinking water and it is permitted to boil dry out can be extremely dangerous. If feed water is sent in to the vacant boiler then, the tiny cascade of incoming drinking water instantly boils on contact with the superheated steel shell and leads to a violent explosion that can't be controlled even by safety steam valves. Draining of the boiler can also happen if a leak occurs in the steam source lines that is bigger than the make-up drinking water supply could replace. The Hartford Loop was developed in 1919 by the Hartford Vapor Boiler and Insurance Company as a method to help prevent this problem from occurring, and thus reduce their insurance claims.[7 - [8 -

    Superheated steam boiler

    A superheated boiler on a steam locomotive.
    Main article: Superheater
    Most boilers produce steam to be used at saturation heat; that is, saturated steam. Superheated steam boilers vaporize the water and additional heating the steam in a superheater then. This provides vapor at higher heat range, but can reduce the overall thermal efficiency of the vapor generating seed because the bigger steam heat range requires a higher flue gas exhaust temperature.[citation needed - There are several ways to circumvent this problem, typically by giving an economizer that heats the feed water, a combustion air heater in the hot flue gas exhaust path, or both. You will find advantages to superheated steam that may, and will often, increase overall efficiency of both steam generation and its own utilization: increases in input heat to a turbine should outweigh any cost in additional boiler problem and expense. There can also be useful limitations in using wet steam, as entrained condensation droplets will damage turbine blades.

    Superheated steam presents unique safety concerns because, if any operational system component fails and allows steam to escape, the temperature and pressure can cause serious, instantaneous harm to anyone in its path. Since the escaping steam will be completely superheated vapor, detection can be difficult, although the extreme heat and sound from such a leak indicates its existence clearly.

    Superheater operation is similar to that of the coils on an fresh air conditioning unit, although for a different purpose. The vapor piping is directed through the flue gas path in the boiler furnace. The heat range in this field is normally between 1,300 and 1,600 °C (2,372 and 2,912 °F). Some superheaters are glowing type; that is, they absorb temperature by radiation. Others are convection type, absorbing high temperature from a fluid. Some are a mixture of the two types. Through either method, the extreme heat in the flue gas path will heat the superheater steam piping and the steam within also. While the heat range of the steam in the superheater increases, the pressure of the vapor will not and the pressure remains exactly like that of the boiler.[9 - Almost all steam superheater system designs remove droplets entrained in the steam to avoid harm to the turbine blading and associated piping.

    Supercritical steam generator

    Boiler for a charged power vegetable.
    Main article: Supercritical steam generator
    Supercritical steam generators are used for the production of energy frequently. They operate at supercritical pressure. In contrast to a "subcritical boiler", a supercritical vapor generator operates at such a high pressure (over 3,200 psi or 22 MPa) that the physical turbulence that characterizes boiling ceases to occur; the fluid is liquid nor gas but a super-critical fluid neither. There is no generation of steam bubbles within the water, because the pressure is above the critical pressure point of which steam bubbles can develop. As the liquid expands through the turbine phases, its thermodynamic state drops below the critical point as it can work turning the turbine which converts the power generator that power is eventually extracted. The fluid at that time may be a mixture of steam and liquid droplets as it passes in to the condenser. This results in somewhat less fuel use and therefore less greenhouse gas creation. The word "boiler" shouldn't be used for a supercritical pressure steam generator, as no "boiling" occurs in this product.
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    Boiler fittings and accessories
    Pressuretrols to regulate the steam pressure in the boiler. Boilers generally have two or three 3 pressuretrols: a manual-reset pressuretrol, which functions as a security by setting top of the limit of vapor pressure, the working pressuretrol, which controls when the boiler fires to keep pressure, and for boilers equipped with a modulating burner, a modulating pressuretrol which controls the quantity of fire.
    Protection valve: It is used to alleviate pressure and prevent possible explosion of a boiler.
    Water level indications: They show the operator the level of liquid in the boiler, also called a sight cup, water gauge or water column.
    Bottom blowdown valves: They provide a means for removing solid particulates that condense and lie on the bottom of a boiler. As the name suggests, this valve is usually located on underneath of the boiler, and is occasionally opened to use the pressure in the boiler to force these particulates out.
    Constant blowdown valve: This allows a small quantity of water to flee continuously. Its purpose is to prevent the water in the boiler becoming saturated with dissolved salts. Saturation would lead to foaming and cause water droplets to be carried over with the steam - a disorder known as priming. Blowdown is also often used to monitor the chemistry of the boiler water.
    Trycock: a type of valve that is often use to manually check a liquid level in a container. Most found on a drinking water boiler commonly.
    Flash tank: High-pressure blowdown enters this vessel where the vapor can 'flash' safely and be used in a low-pressure system or be vented to atmosphere while the ambient pressure blowdown flows to drain.
    Automatic blowdown/continuous heat recovery system: This technique allows the boiler to blowdown only once make-up water is moving to the boiler, thereby transferring the maximum amount of heat possible from the blowdown to the make-up water. No flash tank is generally needed as the blowdown discharged is near to the heat range of the makeup water.
    Hand holes: They are steel plates installed in openings in "header" to permit for inspections & installing pipes and inspection of internal surfaces.
    Steam drum internals, some screen, scrubber & cans (cyclone separators).
    Low-water cutoff: It is a mechanical means (usually a float change) that can be used to turn from the burner or shut off gas to the boiler to prevent it from working once the drinking water goes below a certain point. If a boiler is "dry-fired" (burned without water in it) it can cause rupture or catastrophic failing.
    Surface blowdown collection: It offers a way for removing foam or other light-weight non-condensible substances that have a tendency to float on top of water inside the boiler.
    Circulating pump: It is made to circulate water back again to the boiler after they have expelled some of its heat.
    Feedwater check valve or clack valve: A non-return stop valve in the feedwater line. This can be suited to the relative aspect of the boiler, below water level just, or to the very best of the boiler.[10 -
    Top feed: With this design for feedwater injection, the water is fed to the very best of the boiler. This can reduce boiler fatigue triggered by thermal stress. By spraying the feedwater over a series of trays water is quickly warmed which can reduce limescale.
    Desuperheater pipes or bundles: A series of tubes or bundles of pipes in the water drum or the steam drum made to cool superheated vapor, in order to supply auxiliary equipment that will not need, or may be damaged by, dry out vapor.
    Chemical injection line: A link with add chemicals for controlling feedwater pH.
    Steam accessories
    Main steam stop valve:
    Steam traps:
    Main steam stop/check valve: It can be used on multiple boiler installations.
    Combustion accessories
    Energy oil system:fuel oil heaters
    Gas system:
    Coal system:
    Soot blower
    Other essential items
    Pressure gauges:
    Feed pumps:
    Fusible plug:
    Inspectors test pressure measure attachment:
    Name plate:
    Registration dish:

  • Skrivet av: JustinApeva - 2018-01-15 kl 15:12

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    Акции на Воду 19л и Кулера для воды на странице Акции.


  • Skrivet av: Stefan - 2018-01-13 kl 17:56

    Hej Pugh, gott nytt år.
    Det var roligt att se dej på koster för ett par år sen.
    Förlåt att jag kanske var lite jobbig o ropade efter låtar som du inte ville spela, ska inte upprepas:)

  • Skrivet av: shoe lifts - 2018-01-07 kl 01:04 | Web

    The other day, while I was at work, my cousin stole
    my iphone and tested to see if it can survive a thirty foot drop, just so she can be a youtube sensation. My iPad is now destroyed and she has 83 views.
    I know this is completely off topic but I had to share it with someone!

  • Skrivet av: Kim Norrgren - 2018-01-03 kl 20:28

    Gott Nyttige År
    Lagt mig på soffan, på skivtallricken har jag lagt en av mina førsta skivor. Som jag fick julafton 1969 , då var jag fjorton och hørt små latta moln i radioen. Så tand var jag att den kom på ønskeseddelen. Nu många år senare ar den fortfarande en av mina absoluta favoriter. Ja, Dä Ä Dä en skiva før livet.

  • Skrivet av: carina - 2017-12-20 kl 20:06

    I julfriden/stöket stannade jag upp när storseglet spelades. Satte mig och filosoferade några minuter, kom väl egentligen bara fram till att jag måste skicka iväg en julhälsning. Så här kommer den, ha en riktigt "go" jul med allt vad det innebär. Håller ögonen öppna ifall det blir någon spelning i närheten framöver. Till dess kollar jag gästboken då, och då.

  • Skrivet av: Ralf Olböter - 2017-12-17 kl 12:41

    Hallå Torbjörn , ville bara önska dig en riktigt god jul och ett fantastiskt 2018 . Med vänlig hälsning, Ralf på Orust.

  • Skrivet av: Jens Malmberg - 2017-12-15 kl 07:06

    Tjena Pugh! Kommer det något nytt album från dig snart?

    Pugh svarar:Tjä Jens
    Just nu ligger 5 nya låtar inspelade.
    Ska bara mixas i studio.
    Vill gärna ha ut dom tidigt 2018.)

  • Skrivet av: Per Agne Eklund - 2017-11-30 kl 22:02

    Vi saknar dig här i Gefle!!!

  • Skrivet av: carina - 2017-11-30 kl 17:54

    Göteborg ligger kvar på kartan, och vi PUGH:are finns kvar! Tröstade oss med god dryck i trevligt sällskap, och lyssnade igenom några av dina låtar. Tittade dagen efter på en konsert, där Loffe fanns på trummor och Jojje var med ! Kan rekommendera Loffe gäst hos Hagge som vi också kikade på, det blev lite som "plåster på såren" för den uteblivna konserten. Hoppas du mår bättre. Honungste, C-vitamin + mycket empati läker :) Ser fram emot konsert, när den än blir. Vi höres.

    Pugh svarar:Hallon Carina
    Ska prova receptet.
    Jobbar på come back. Ses. P)


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